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Some tumours of developmental origin. • . g~r!! a) Neuroblastoma of adrenal medulla; b) Nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumour of kidney); c) Benign teratoma of ovary (dermoid cyst) ; d) Adamantinoma; e) Capillary hremangioma; f) Junctional nrevus showing nests of melanoblasts at dermoepidermal junction 41 going their fmal development. They may be composed of cells of a single type pertaining to the site of origin, such as neuroblastoma arising from primitive neuroblasts in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia.

Palisade or radial arrangement of cells at the margin is characteristic. In certain cases melanin pigment may be present in the stroma. These pigmented lesions may be mistaken clinically for malignant melanoma. c) Transitional cell carcinoma occurs in the renal pelvis, ureter and bladder. This carcinoma usually exhibits a papillary pattern consisting of a central fibrovascular stroma surrounded by layers of transitional cells. The deep epithelial layers are polygonal or columnar, whereas the superficiallayers are somewhat flattened.

Several substances known to induce cancer in laboratory animals have been found in cigarette smoke. The principal ones, polycyclic hydrocarbons, are not present in tobacco leaves but form during combustion. 32 ~g/day. According to a recent report, N-nitrosopiperidine, another potent carcinogen, is present in tobacco smoke. Many experiments have shown that cancers can be induced in laboratory animals with various mixtures obtained from cigarette smoke. The type of lung cancer most commonly found in man, namely pavement epithelium carcinoma of bronchial origin, has been reproduced in dogs with tracheostomies in conditions comparable with human exposure.

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