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After deliberation, the panel designates an award for the candidate. The president of the panel writes a report about the defense. The report indicates whether or not the Doctorate is to be awarded with distinction. This report is given to the candidate. The certificates (the Doctoral diploma and degree) are signed by the president of the university. The Status of Doctoral Students While engaged in Doctoral studies, Doctoral students must be registered at a university. The registration confers student status and social security benefits.

A Doctoral student can also sign a fixed-term employment contract for the duration of his or her Doctoral studies (three years). The employment corresponds to the work that he or she is undertaking in the laboratory during the preparation of his or her thesis. In general, these fixed-term contracts correspond to co-operative projects of applied research contracted between the university and an enterprise. The corresponding remune ration (from €1,400 to €2,000 per month) is provided either by the enterprise in question or by the university, according to the contract signed between the two of them.

Table 8. 9 1,910 * The proportion of students who failed to have their Doctorates awarded corresponds to the sum of students who stopped their preparation of a thesis and of those who stopped studying after having been awarded the DEA. Source: The author. Doctorate GERMANY 49 Post-Doctoral Studies and Employment University staff members and researchers in national research institutions are recruited by competition. The competition takes place once a year. To apply for a post, a candidate must hold a Doctorate.

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